Food borne infection and intoxication have assumed significance as a serious health problem for the mankind. Now a day’s fast food industry has come up which produces ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook food products and more people are taking food in commercial establishments.
Microbial hazards in food result in either human illness of food spoilage or other health hazards associated with food, such as pesticide residues, poison or toxic substance.eonomic loses are more due to food spoilage and from health aspects.
What is HACCP?
Hazard analysis and critical control point, HACCP is a system, which identifies, evaluates and control hazard, which are significant for food safety. The seven principles of HACCP, as adopted by the Codex Alimentarius, establish the framework for developing specific HACCP plans for each food product line combination. When developing HACCP plan, the identification of all potential hazards, which are of such nature their safe food, is required.
PRINCIPLES OF HACCP
- Conduct a hazard analysis.
- Determine the critical control points
- Establish a critical limits.
- Establish system to monitor control of the CCPs
DEVELOPING THE HACCP PLAN
Each process and conditions of processing are unique to each establishment. Therefore HACCP plan should be developed by a team of individuals representing certain disciplines.
The first step towards establishing a HACCP plan in a meat plant is for the team to conduct hazard analysis. Hazard has been defined as “the unacceptable contamination, unacceptable growth.
E.g.: toxins, enzymes, and biogenic amines
IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL CONTROL POINT
After hazard have been identified, procedures must be established for their control, for which Critical Control Point(CCPs) must be determined .since the introduction of HACCP the definition of CCP has changed markedly.in the case of CCP 2 the risk of hazard can be minimized but the elimination of the hazard cannot be assured.
Flow diagrams can be very useful when developing a HACCP programme to describe a process, identify steps in the process where control can be exercised, and provide an estimate of degree of control, which can be expected.
FLOW CHART –SLAUGHTERING PROCESS FOR POULTRY WITH IDENTIFIED CCPS
Six critical control points (CCPs) have been identified in the slaughter process of poultry.
- Bleeding (CCP 1)
The major source of contamination is the blood oozing from the cut blood vessels which accidentally contaminates the carcass.
Knives should be sterilized after bleeding operation.
The stagnant blood on the floor should be washed away.
2. Scalding (CCP 1)
Butchers should be trained on scientific method of scalding.
Wash water must be changed frequently enough to ensure of the poultry carcasses.
3. DE feathering (CCP 2)
Butchers should be trained on scientific methods of DE feathering.
The major source of contamination associated with DE feathering is the feathers of operations.
4. Evisceration (CCP 2)
The contents of the gut is the major source of contamination during the process of evisceration.
If any accidental contamination with gut contests occurs, it should be trimmed.
5. Trussing (CCP 1)
Use of disposable gloves will reduce the contamination during trussing operations.
Visible contamination, if any, should be trimmed.
6. Chilling (CCP 2)
The criteria based on which CCPs are monitored should permit timely measurements for determining whether each of the process is under control.
ADVANTAGES OF HACCP
- Food safety management system using the approach of controlling critical control points in food handling to prevent food safety problems.
- It is based on prevention and reduces reliance on end product testing.
- It can be used throughout the food chain from the farm to the consumer’s table
- A revision of other quality assurance procedures would result in integration of these programs into the HACCP plan
Verification is a process to look at the HACCP plan as it is being carried out at the long-term trends and implications. The HACCP team must strive to continue to update and improve the HACCP plan, knowing that plan is a dynamic instrument