Tue. Nov 29th, 2022


Cryptococcosis is an infection caused by fungus found in the environment, particularly in soil, on decaying wood, in tree hollows, or in bird droppings.

Etiology: C. neoformans and C. gattii.

Birds affected: Canaries Pigeons Psittacine birds (such as parrots, budgerigars, parakeets, cockatiels, and cockatoos), Macaws

Transmission: Animals come in contact with the fungus in the environment, mainly by inhalation (aerosol).

Symptoms: sneezing, snorting, nasal discharge, eye problems, change behaviour, depression, disorientation, seizures, and difficulties with moving around

Treatment and control:

Drugs for Eliminating Cryptococcus neoformans

 Some of the drugs used in treating Cryptococcosis include voriconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B. These are antifungal drugs that are effective to get rid of Cryptococcus neoformans.

Drugs for Infection and Complications

To treat pulmonary or central nervous system infections, antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, or amoxicillin are used. Skin lesions are usually treated with antifungal cream or ointment and ocular (eyes) involvement will require antifungal drops or ointment.


Aspergillosis is an opportunistic infection that typically occurs in immunocompromised hosts (malnutrition, especially vitamin A deficiency) or when birds are exposed to large numbers of aerosolized spores.

Etiology:Aspergillus fumigatus

Birds affected:African grey parrots, Amazon parrots, cockatiels, and macaws


Symptoms:reduced energy levels, decreased appetite, lethargy, progressive weight loss, or exercise intolerance (easily out of breath).

Treatment and control: oral, intravenous, topical, and aerosolized antifungal medications and/or surgical removal of fungal plaques

Good hygiene (to minimize dust and moisture build-up), frequent cage cleaning, fresh nutritious food, and good ventilation


Infect the digestive tracts of birds. It is a common cause of ‘sour crop’ or a crop infection (ingluvitis), especially in young birds. It will spread from an adult bird feeding a young one; from a contaminated environment or contaminated water; or hand-feeding formulas.

Etiology: Candida albicans

Birds affected:cockatiels


Symptoms:Anorexia, Delayed crop emptying, Swollen or mucus filled crop, White plaque in the mouth, Beakabnormalities, Feathers fluffed

Diagnosis:Methylene blue stain of the faeces, crop contents,In severe cases, when tissue invasion has occurred, the budding yeast will produce hyphae that can be seen in scrapings obtained from the crop or pharynx, or from the faeces.

Treatment and control:Fed small amounts of food to empty their crop more often, and to control the Candidiasis infection

 Regular cleaning and disinfecting of the cage, nest box, and utensils


Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection. This fungus lives in soil that contains a large amount of bird’s droppings.

Etiology: Histoplasma capsulatum

Transmission: by inhalation

Symptoms: mild form produces no symptoms, fever, chill, muscle aches, loss of vision

Treatment: antifungal medicines such as itraconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin

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